Search in Medwell
 
 
Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science
Year: 2012 | Volume: 7 | Issue: 1 | Page No.: 1-28
DOI: 10.3923/jfas.2012.1.28  
Isolation and Screening of Lactic Acid Bacteria from the Gut of Blue Swimming Crab, P. pelagicus, an in vitro Inhibition Assay and Small Scale in vivo Model for Validation of Isolates as Probiotics
A.D. Talpur, A.J. Memon, M.I. Khan, M. Ikhwanuddin, M.M. Danish Daniel and A.B. Abol-Munafi
 
References
Abd El-Rhman, A.M., Y.A. Khattab and A.M. Shalaby, 2009. Micrococcus luteus and Pseudomonas species as probiotics for promoting the growth performance and health of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Fish Shellfish Immunol., 27: 175-180.
PubMed  |  

Aly, S.M., A.M. Abd-El-Rahman, G. John and M.F. Mohamed, 2008. Characterization of some bacteria isolated from Oreochromis niloticus and their potential use as probiotics. Aquaculture, 277: 1-6.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Aly, S.M., Y.A.G. Ahmed, A.A.A. Ghareeb and M.F. Mohamed, 2008. Studies on Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus, as potential probiotics, on the immune response and resistance of Tilapia nilotica (Oreochromis niloticus) to challenge infections. Fish Shellfish Immunol., 25: 128-136.
PubMed  |  

Amin, M., M. Jorfi, A.D. Khosravi, A.R. Samarbafzadeh and A.F. Sheikh, 2009. Isolation and identification of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum from plants by PCR and detection of their antibacterial activity. J. Biol. Sci., 9: 810-814.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Andrews, J.H. and R.F. Harris, 1986. 2- and K-selection in microbial ecology. Adv. Microb. Ecol., 9: 99-147.
Direct Link  |  

Arihara, K., H. Ota, M. Itoh, Y. Kondo and T. Sameshima et al., 1998. Lactobacillus acidophilus group lactic acid bacteria applied to meat fermentation. J. Food Sci., 63: 544-547.
CrossRef  |  

Askarian, F., A. Matinfar, A. Kousha, M. Bahmani, K. Khorshidi, A. Shenavar and E. Ringo, 2008. Diversity of lactic acid bacteria in the gastrointestinal tracts of reared beluga (Huso huso) and Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus): A comparative study. J. Fish. Aquatic Sci., 3: 302-311.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Aslim, B., Z.N. Yuksekdag, E. Sarikaya and Y. Beyatli, 2005. Determination of the bacteriocin-like substances produced by some lactic acid bacteria isolated from Turkish dairy products. LWT Food Sci. Technol., 38: 691-694.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Bairagi, A., K.S. Ghosh, S.K. Sen and A.K. Ray, 2002. Enzyme producing bacterial flora isolated from fish digestive tracts. Aquacult. Int., 10: 109-121.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Balcazar, J.L., D. Vendrell, I. de Blas, I. Ruiz-Zarzuela, J.L. Muzquiz and O. Girones, 2008. haracterization of probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from intestinal microbiota of fish. Aquaculture, 278: 188-191.
CrossRef  |  

Balcazar, J.L., D. Vendrell, I. de Blas, I. Ruiz-Zarzuela, O. Girones and J.L. Muzquiz, 2007. In vitro competitive adhesion and production of antagonistic compounds by lactic acid bacteria against fish pathogens. Veterin. Microbiol., 122: 373-380.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  

Balcazar, J.L., I. de Blas, I. Ruiz-Zarzuela, D. Vendrell and A.C. Calvo et al., 2007. Changes in intestinal microbiota and humoral immune response following probiotic administration in brown trout (Salmo trutta). Br. J. Nutr., 97: 522-527.
PubMed  |  

Beresford, T.P., N.A. Fitzsimons, N.L. Brennan and T.M. Cogan, 2001. Recent advances in cheese microbiology. Int. Dairy J., 11: 259-274.
CrossRef  |  

Bhattacharya, S. and A. Das, 2010. Study of physical and cultural parameters on the bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional Indian fermented foods. Am. J. Food Technol., 5: 111-120.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Birkbeck, T.H. and E. Ringo, 2005. Pathogenesis and the Gastrointestinal Tract of Growing Fish. In: Microbial Ecology in Growing Animals, Holzapfel, W. and P. Naughton (Eds.). Elsevier, Edinburgh, UK., pp: 208-234.

Bizani, D. and A. Brandelli, 2004. Influence of media and temperature on bacteriocin production by Bacillus cereus 8A during batch cultivation. Applied Microbiol. Biotechnol., 65: 158-162.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Bjorkroth, K.J., U. Schillinger, R. Geisen, N. Weiss and B. Hoste et al., 2002. Taxonomic study of Weissella confusa and description of Weissella cibaria sp. nov., detected in food and clinical samples. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 52: 141-148.
Direct Link  |  

Bjornsdottir, R., E.G. Karadottir, J. Johannsdottir, E. Thorarinsdottir, H. Smaradottir, S. Sigurgisladottir and B.K. Gudmundsdottir, 2010. Selection of bacteria and the effects of bacterial treatment of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) eggs and larvae. Aquaculture, 302: 219-227.

Brunt, J., A. Newaj-Fyzul and B. Austin, 2007. The development of probiotics for the control of multiple bacterial diseases of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). J. Fish Dis., 30: 573-579.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  

Buntin, N., S. Chanthachum and T. Hongpattarakere, 2008. Screening of lactic acid bacteria from gastrointestinal tracts of marine fish for their potential use as probiotics. Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol., 30: 141-148.
Direct Link  |  

Cadirci, B.H. and S. Citak, 2005. A comparison of two methods used for measuring antagonistic activity of lactic acid bacteria. Pak. J. Nutr., 4: 237-241.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Cahill, M.M., 1990. Bacterial flora of fishes: A review. Microb. Ecol., 19: 21-41.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Caipang, C.M.A., M.F. Brinchmann and V. Kiron, 2010. Antagonistic activity of bacterial isolates from intestinal microbiota of Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua and an investigation of their immunomodulatory capabilities. Aquacult. Res., 41: 249-256.
CrossRef  |  

Cho, G.S. and H.K. Do, 2006. Isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria isolated from a traditional jeotgal product in Korea. Ocean Sci. J., 41: 113-119.
CrossRef  |  

Chou, L.S. and B. Weimer, 1999. Isolation and characterization of acid and bile tolerant isolated from strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus. J. Dairy Sci., 82: 23-31.
PubMed  |  

Chythanya, R., I. Karunasagar and I. Karunasagar, 2002. Inhibition of shrimp pathogenic vibrios by a marine Pseudomonas I-2 strain. Aquaculture, 208: 1-10.
CrossRef  |  

Cogan, T.M., M. Barbosa, E. Beuvier, S.B. Bianchi and P.S. Coccon-Celli et al., 1997. Characterization of the lactic acid bacteria in artisanal dairy products. J. Dairy Res., 64: 409-421.
Direct Link  |  

Comstock, L.E., 2007. Microbiology: The inside story. Nature, 448: 542-544.
CrossRef  |  

Davidson, P.M. and S. Zivanovic, 2003. Food Antimicrobials. In: Antimicrobials in Foods, Davidson, P.M., J.N. Sofos and A.L. Branen (Eds.). CRC Press, USA..

El-Haroun, E.R., A.M.A.S. Goda and M.A.K. Chowdhury, 2006. Effect of dietary probiotic Biogen supplementation as a growth promoter on growth performance and feed utilization of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L.). Aquacult. Res., 37: 1473-1480.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Erkkila, S. and E. Petaja, 2000. Screening of commercial meat starter cultures at low pH and in the presence of bile salts for potential probiotic use. Meat Sci., 55: 297-300.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Fjellheim, A.J., G. Klinkenberg, J. Skjermo, I.M. Aasen and O. Vadstein, 2010. Selection of candidate probionts by two different screening strategies from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) larvae. Vet. Microbiol., 144: 153-159.
PubMed  |  

Fjellheim, A.J., K.J. Playfoot, J. Skjermo and O. Vadstein, 2007. Vibrionaceae dominates the microflora antagonistic towards Listonella anguillarum in the intestine of cultured Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) larvae. Aquac., 269: 98-106.

Fuller, R., 1989. Probiotics in man and animals. J. Applied Microbiol., 66: 365-378.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  

Gatesoupe, F.J., 1994. Lactic acid bacteria increase the resistance of turbot larvae, Scophthalmus maximus, against pathogenic vibrio. Aquat. Living Resour., 7: 277-282.
CrossRef  |  

Gatesoupe, F.J., 1999. The use of probiotics in aquaculture. Aquaculture, 180: 147-165.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Gatesoupe, F.J., 2002. Probiotic and formaldehyde treatments of Artemia nauplii as food for larval pollack, Pollachius pollachius. Aquaculture, 212: 347-360.
Direct Link  |  

Gharaei-Fathabad, E. and M. Eslamifar, 2011. Isolation and applications of one strain of Lactobacillus paraplantarum from tea leaves (Camellia sinensis). Am. J. Food Technol., 6: 429-434.
CrossRef  |  

Gomez, G.D. and J.L. Balcazar, 2008. A review on the interactions between gut microbiota and innate immunity of fish. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol., 52: 145-154.
CrossRef  |  

Gonzalez, C.L., J.P. Enicinas, M.L. Garcia Lopez and A. Otero, 2000. Characterization and identification of lactic acid bacteria from freshwater fishes. Food Microbiol., 17: 383-391.
Direct Link  |  

Gram, L. and E. Ringo, 2005. Prospects of Fish Probiotics. In: Microbial Ecology in Growing Animals, Holzapfel, W. and P. Naughton (Eds.). Elsevier, Edinburgh, UK., pp: 379-417.

Grossart, H.P., A. Schlingloff, M. Bernhard, M. Simon and T. Brinkhoff, 2004. Antagonistic activity of bacteria isolated from organic aggregates of the German Wadden Sea. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol., 47: 387-396.
Direct Link  |  

Herreros, M.A., J.M. Fresno, M.J. Gonzalez-Prieto and M.E. Tornadijo, 2003. Technological characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Armada cheese (a Spanish goat's milk cheese). Int. Dairy J., 13: 469-479.
Direct Link  |  

Hjelm, M., O. Bergh, A. Riaza, J. Nielsen and J. Melchiorsen et al., 2004. Selection and identification of autochthonous potential probiotic bacteria from turbot larvae (Scophthalmus maximus) rearing units. Syst. Applied Microbiol., 27: 360-371.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Hoehne-Reitan, K., E. Kjorsvik and K. Reitan, 2001. Development of the pH in the intestinal tract of larval turbot. Mar. Biol., 139: 1159-1164.
CrossRef  |  

Huber, I., B. Spanggaard, K.F. Appel, L. Rossen, T. Neilson and L. Gram, 2004. Phylogenetic analysis and in situ identification of the intestinal microbial community of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum). J. Applied Microbiol., 96: 117-132.
PubMed  |  

Hyronimus, B., C. Le Marrec, A.H. Sassi and A. Deschamps, 2000. Acid and bile tolerance of spore-forming lactic acid bacteria. Int. J. Food Microbiol., 61: 193-197.
CrossRef  |  

Irianto, A. and B. Austin, 2002. Use of probiotics to control furunculosis in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). J. Fish Dis., 25: 333-342.
CrossRef  |  

Jatoba, A., F.D. Vieira, C.B. Neto, B.C. Silva and J.L.P. Mourino et al., 2008. Lactic acid bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of Nile tilapia utilized as probiotic. Pesq. Agropec. Brasil, 43: 1201-1207.
CrossRef  |  

Joborn A., J.C. Olsson, A. Westerdahl, P.L. Conway and S. Kjelleberg, 1997. Colonization in the fish intestinal tract and production of inhibitory substances in intestinal mucus and faecal extracts by Carnobacterium sp. strain K1. J. Fish Dis., 20: 383-392.
CrossRef  |  

Joborn, A., M. Dorsch, J.C. Olsson, A. Westerdahl and S. Kjelleberg, 1999. Carnobacterium inhibens sp. nov., isolated from the intestine of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Int. J. Sys. Bacteriol., 49: 1891-1898.
PubMed  |  

Kennedy, S.B., J.W. Tucker, C.L. Neidig, G.K. Vermeer, V.R. Cooper, J.L. Jarrell and D.G. Sennett, 1998. Bacterial management strategies for stock enhancement of warm water marine fish: A case study with common snook (Centropomus undecimalis). Bull. Mar. Sci., 62: 573-588.
Direct Link  |  

Kesarcodi-Watson, A., H. Kaspar, M.J. Lategan and L. Gibson, 2010. Alteromonas macleodii 0444 and Neptunomonas sp. 0536, two novel probiotics for hatchery-reared Greenshell mussel larvae, Perna canaliculus. Aquaculture, 309: 49-55.
CrossRef  |  

Lee, H.I., M.H. Kim, K.Y. Kim and J.S. So, 2010. Screening and selection of stress resistant Lactobacillus sp. isolated from the marine oyster (Crassostrea gigas). Anaerobe, 16: 522-526.
CrossRef  |  

Long, R.A. and F. Azam, 2001. Antagonistic interactions among marine pelagic bacteria. Applied Environ. Microbol., 67: 4975-4983.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Lucena, B.T., B.M. dos Santos, J.L. Moreira, A.P. Moreira and A.C. Nunes et al., 2010. Diversity of lactic acid bacteria of thebioethanol process. BMC Microbiol., 10: 298-298.
PubMed  |  

Ma, C.W., Y.S. Cho and K.H. Oh, 2009. Removal of pathogenic bcteria and nitrogens by Lactobacillus sp. JK-8 and JK-11. Aquaculture, 287: 266-270.
CrossRef  |  

Mahious, A.S., T. Vanhoute, E.D. Brandt, G. Huys and F. Ollevie, 2006. Taxonomic diversity of culturable intestinal microbiota of Siberian sturgeon Acipemer baerii. World Aquacu. Soc., 2006: 566-566.

Makridis, P., S. Martins, M. Tsalavouta, L.C. Dionisio, G. Kotoulas, A. Magoulas and M.T. Dinis, 2005. Antimicrobial activity in bacteria isolated from Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis, fed with natural prey. Aquacult. Res., 36: 1619-1627.
CrossRef  |  

Maragkoudakis, P.A., G. Zoumpopoulou, C. Miaris, G. Kalantzopoulos, B. Pot and E. Tsakalidou, 2006. Probiotic potential of Lactobacillus strains isolated from dairy products. Int. Dairy J., 16: 189-199.
CrossRef  |  

Marie-France, P. and L. Francoise, 2011. Applications of Protective Cultures, Bacteriocins and Bacteriophages in Fresh Seafood and Seafood Products. In: Protective Cultures, Antimicrobial Metabolites and Bacteriophages for Food and Beverage Biopreservation, Lacroix, C. (Ed.). Woodhead Publishing Ltd., Cambridge, United Kingdom, ISBN-13: 9781845696696.

Mazmanian, S.K., J.L. Round and D.L. Kasper, 2008. A microbial symbiosis factor prevents intestinal inflammatory disease. Nat., 453: 620-625.
PubMed  |  

Monteiro, L., R.L.R. Mariano and A.M. Souto-Maior, 2005. Antagonism of Bacillus sp. against Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol., 48: 23-29.
Direct Link  |  

Nikoskelainen, S., A. Ouwehand, S. Salminen and G. Bylund, 2001. Protection of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from furunculosis by Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Aquaculture, 198: 229-236.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Nikoskelainen, S., S. Salminen, G. Bylund and A.C. Ouwehand, 2001. Characterization of the properties of human- and dairy-derived probiotics for prevention of infectious diseases in fish. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 67: 2430-2435.
CrossRef  |  

Olson, J.C., A. Westerdahl, P.L. Conway and S. Kjelleberg, 1992. Intestinal colonization potential of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and dab (Limanda limanda)- associated bacteria with inhibitory effects against Vibrio anguillarum. Applied Enviorn. Microbiol., 58: 551-556.
Direct Link  |  

Osuntoki, A.B., O.R. Ejide and E.A. Omonigbehin, 2008. Antagnonistic effects on entropathogens and plasmid analysis of Lactobacillus isolated from dairy products. Biotechnology, 7: 311-316.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Ottesen, O.H. and J.A. Olafsen, 2000. Effects on survival and mucous cell proliferation of Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus L., larvae following microflora manipulation. Aquaculture, 187: 225-238.
CrossRef  |  

Panigrahi, A., V. Kiron, T. Kobayashi, J. Puangkaew, S. Satoh and H. Sugita, 2004. Immune responses in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss induced by a potential probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus JCM 1136. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol., 102: 379-388.
Direct Link  |  

Pennacchia, C., D. Ercolini, G. Blaiotta, O. Pepe, G. Mauriello and F. Villani, 2004. Selection of Lactobacillus strains from fermented sausages for their potential use as probiotics. Meat Sci., 67: 309-317.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Picchietti, S., A.M. Fausto, E. Randelli, O. Carnevali and A.R. Taddei et al., 2009. Early treatment with Lactobacillus delbrueckii strain induces an increase in intestinal T-cells and granulocytes and modulates immune-related genes of larval Dicentrarchus labrax (L.). Fish Shellfish Immunol., 26: 368-376.
PubMed  |  

Ramirez, R.F. and B.A. Dixon, 2003. Enzyme production by obligate intestinal anaerobic bacteria isolated from oscars (Astronotus ocellatus), angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) and southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma). Aquaculture, 227: 417-426.
CrossRef  |  

Rengpipat, S., T. Rueangruklikhit and S. Piyatiratitivorakul, 2008. Evaluations of lactic acid bacteria as probiotics for juvenile seabass Lates calcarifer. Aquacult. Res., 39: 134-143.
CrossRef  |  

Ringo, E. and F.J. Gatesoupe, 1998. Lactic acid bacteria in fish: A review. Aquaculture, 160: 177-203.
CrossRef  |  

Ringo, E., 2004. Lactic Acid Bacteria in Fish and Fish Farming. In: Lactic Acid Bacteria, Salminen, S., A. Ouwehand and A. Von Weight (Eds.). Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, USA., pp: 581-610.

Ringo, E., E. Strom and J.A. Tabachek, 1995. Intestinal microflora of salmonids: A review. Aquacult. Res., 26: 773-789.
CrossRef  |  

Ringo, E., M.S. Wesmajervi, H.R. Bendiksen, A. Berg and R.E. Olsen et al., 2001. Identification and characterization of carnobacteria isolated from fish intestine. Syst. Applied Microbiol., 24: 183-191.
CrossRef  |  

Ringo, E., R. Myklebust, T.M. Mayhew and R.E. Olsen, 2007. Bacterial translocation and pathogenesis in the digestive tract of larvae and fry. Aquaculture, 268: 251-264.
CrossRef  |  

Robertson, P.A.W., C.O. Dowd, C. Burrells, P. Williams and B. Austin, 2000. Use of Carnobacterium sp. as a probiotic for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum). Aquaculture, 185: 235-243.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Rowland, I.R., 1992. Metabolic Interactions in the Gut. In: Probiotics: The Scientific Basis, Fuller, R. (Ed.). Chapman and Hall, London, pp: 29-53.

Sarantinopoulos, P., G. Kalantzopoulos and E. Tsakalidou, 2001. Citrate metabolism by Enterococcus faecalis FAIR-E 229. Applied Environ. Microbiol., 67: 5482-5487.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Sarkono, Faturrahman and Y. Sofyan, 2010. Isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria from abalone (Haliotis asinina) as a potential candidate of probiotic. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 2: 38-42.
Direct Link  |  

Spanggaard, B., I. Huber, J. Nielsen, E.B. Sick and C.B. Pipper et al., 2001. The probiotic potential against vibriosis of the indigenous microflora of rainbow trout. Environ. Microbiol., 3: 755-765.
Direct Link  |  

Succi, M., P. Tremonte, A. Raele, E. Sorrentino, L. Grazia, S. Pacifico and R. Coppola, 2005. Bile salt and acid tolerance of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains isolated from Parmigiano Reggiano cheese. FEMS Microbiol. Lett., 244: 129-137.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  

Sugita, H., K. Shibuya, H. Shimooka and Y. Deguchi, 1996. Antibacterial abilities of intestinal bacteria in freshwater cultured fish. Aquaculture, 145: 195-203.
CrossRef  |  

Sugita, H., R. Okano, Y. Suzuki, D. Iwai, M. Mizukami, N. Akiyama and S. Matsuura, 2002. Antibacterial ability of intestinal bacteria from larval and juvenile Japanese flounder against fish pathogen. Fish Sci., 68: 1004-1011.
CrossRef  |  

Sugita, H., Y. Hirose, N. Matsuo and Y. Deguchi, 1998. Production of the antibacterial substance by Bacillus sp. strain NM 12, an intestinal bacterium of Japanese coastal fish. Aquaculture, 165: 269-280.
CrossRef  |  

Sun, Y., H. Yang, Z. Ling, J. Chang and J. Ye, 2009. Gut microbiota of fast and slow growing grouper Epinephelus coioides. Afr. J. Microbiol. Res., 3: 713-720.
Direct Link  |  

Suzer, C., D. Coban, H.O. Kamaci, S. Saka and K. Firat, O. Otgucuogluc and H. Kucuksaric, 2008. Lactobacillus sp. bacteria as probiotics in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, L.) larvae: Effects on growth performance and digestive enzyme activities. Aquaculture, 280: 140-145.
CrossRef  |  

Talpur, A.D., A.J. Memon, M.I. Khan, M. Ikhwanuddin, M.M. Danish Daniel and A.B. Abol-Munafi, 2011. A novel of Gut Pathogenic bacteria of blue swimming crab Portunus pelagicus (Linneaus, 1758) and pathogenicity of Vibrio harveyi a transmission agent in larval culture under hatchery conditions. Res. J. Applied Sci., 6: 116-127.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Valerio, F., M. Favilla, P. de Bellis, A. Sisto, S. de Candia and P. Lavermicocca, 2009. Antifungal activity of strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from a semolina ecosystem against Penicillium roqueforti, Aspergillus niger and Endomyces fibuliger contaminating bakery products. Syst. Applied Microbiol., 32: 438-448.
PubMed  |  

Vendrell, D., J.L. Balcazar, I. de Blas, I. Ruiz-Zarzuela, O. Girones and J.L. Muzquiz, 2008. Protection of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from lactococcosis by probiotic bacteria. Comparative Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis., 31: 337-345.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  

Verschuere, L., G. Rombaut, P. Sorgeloos and W. Verstraete, 2000. Probiotic bacteria as biological control agents in aquaculture. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev., 64: 655-671.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Vijayabaskar, P. and S.T. Somasundaram, 2008. Isolation of bacteriocin producing lactic acid bacteria from fish gut and probiotic activity against common fresh water fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila. Biotechnology, 7: 124-128.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Vijayan, K.K., I.S.B. Singh, N.S. Jayaprakash, S.V. Alavandi and S.S. Pai et al., 2006. A brackishwater isolate of Pseudomonas PS-102, a potential antagonistic bacterium against pathogenic vibrios in penaeid and non-penaeid rearing systems. Aquaculture, 251: 192-200.
CrossRef  |  

Vine, N.G., W.D. Leukes and H. Kaiser, 2004. In vitro growth characteristics of five candidate aquaculture probiotics and two fish pathogens grown on fish intestinal mucus. Fems Microbiol. Lett., 231: 145-152.
PubMed  |  

Vine, N.G., W.D. Leukes and H. Kaiser, 2006. Probiotics in marine larviculture. FEMS Microbiol. Rev., 30: 404-427.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Westerdahl, A., J.C. Olsson, S. Kjelleberg and P.L. Conway, 1991. Isolation and characterizationof turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)-associated bacteria with inhibitory effects against Vibrio anguillarum. Applied Environ. Microbiol., 57: 2223-2228.

Yang, G., B. Bao, E. Peatman, H. Li, L. Huang and D. Ren, 2007. Analysis of the composition of the bacterial community in puffer fish Takifugu obscurus. Aquaculture, 262: 183-191.
CrossRef  |